UNIT 13: CLEFT SENTENCES (Câu chẻ)
It + (is)/ was + phần muốn nhấn mạnh + who/ that … Chính…là…
1. Nhấn mạnh chủ ngữ (Subject focus)
a. Với chủ ngữ chỉ người: It + (is) / was + subject + that/ who + V + O …
Ex1: My brother collected these foreign stamps.
→ It was my brother who collected these foreign stamps.
Ex2: Tony and his wife went to the same school.
→ It was Tony and his wife that/ who went to the same school.
b. Với chủ ngữ chỉ vật: con vật, đồ vật, sự vật…
It + (is) / was + subject + that + V + O …
Ex3: Her absence at the party made me sad. → It was her absence at the party that made me sad.
Ex4: His cat ate my fish. → It was his cat that ate my fish.
2. Nhấn mạnh tân ngữ (Object focus)
a. Với tân ngữ chỉ người: It + (is) / was + object + that + S + V…
Ex5: I met Daisy on the way to school.
→ It was Daisy that I met on the way to school.
Note: Trong thực tế, mặc dù whom rất trang trọng nhưng người ta hầu như không sử dụng whom (chỉ có SGK Tiếng Anh 11 sử dụng)
b. Với tân ngữ chỉ vật: con vật, đồ vật, sự vật…
It + (is) / was + object + that + S + V …
Ex6: My brother bought an old motorbike from our neighbor.
→ It was an old motorbike that my brother bought from our neighbor.
3. Nhấn mạnh trạng từ (Adverbial focus): It + (is) / was + Adverbial phrase + that + S + V …
Ex7: We first met in December. → It was in December that we first met. (Adverb of time)
Ex8: Pham Tuan was born in this village.
→ It was in this village that Pham Tuan was born. (Adverb of place)
+ Trong spoken/ Informal English, để thuận tiện người ta thường dùng THAT = who/ whom.
+ Khi nào thì sử dụng: It is? Khi động từ trong câu gốc ở hiện tại, tương lai
Ex9: My mother loves me most. → It is my mother that/ who loves me most.
+ Khi nhấn mạnh subject là đại từ nhân xưng làm chủ ngữ: (I, you, we, they, he, she, it) thì có phải đổi sang đại từ nhân xưng làm tân ngữ (me, you, us, them, him her, it) không? – Trả lời KHÔNG phải đổi.
Ex10: I gave you this gift. → It was I who gave you this gift. (formal)
→ It was me who gave you this gift. (Informal/ spoken)
* Kết luận:
- Để đơn giản và thuận tiện cứ dùng THAT.
- Đề gạch chân từ nào thì cứ mang xuống. (trong câu chẻ dạng chủ động)
4. Câu chẻ bị động (Cleft sentences in the passive) – Unit 14: giảm tải.
a. Với tân ngữ chỉ người: It + (is) / was + object + who/ that + be + V3/-ed…
Ex11: Fans gave that singer a lot of flowers. → It was that singer who/ that was given a lot of flowers.
b. Với tân ngữ chỉ vật: con vật, đồ vật, sự vật…
It + is / was + object + that + be + V3/-ed…
Ex12: People talk about this film. → It is this film that is talked about.
Ex13: Fans gave that singer a lot of flowers. (two object verbs)
→ It was a lot of flowers that were given to that singer.
* Lưu ý: một số động từ 2 tân ngữ như: give, send, lend, offer...khi nhấn mạnh tân ngữ dạng bị động phải thêm giới từ.
PRACTICE OF CLEFT SENTENCES (CÂU NHẤN MẠNH)
1. SUBJECT FOCUS: (NHẤN MẠNH CHỦ NGỮ)
1. I used to like climbing up trees and pick fruits.
2. My neighbors always make noise at night.
3. We often complains about the noise at night
4. The earthquake destroyed everything two years ago.
5. My recent computer helps me a lots in preparing tasks for my students.
6. She and I sang together at the party.
7. Nam’s father got angry with him.
8. The girl received a letter from her friend yesterday.
9. The dog grabbed at the piece of meat and ran away.
10. The strong wind blew the roof off.
2. OBJECT FOCUS: (NHẤN MẠNH TÂN NGỮ)
11. My younger sister always keeps her doll carefully.
12. The woman answered the man rudely.
13. The boy played ping pong the whole afternoon.
14. The girl gave the boy a special gift on his birthday.
15. My wife gave this T-shirt to me on my last birthday party.
16. The man is learning English.
17. The woman gave him the English book.
18. The little boy greeted his grand father in a strange language.
19. I bought this motor in HCM city some years ago.
20. I met Sasa on the way to my school.
3. ADVERBIAL FOCUS: (NHẤN MẠNH TRẠNG TỪ)
21. We were born in this place.
22. We often gather for dinner in this restaurant.
23. He bought the book from that corner shop.
24. His father repaired the bicycle for him.
25. He met his wife in Britain.
26. My mom presented a lap top on my birthday party.
27. He got married when he was 26 years old.
28. I met her on the way to school.
29. They often have parties at weekends.
30. I met my wife when I was a student at teacher training college.
CLEFT SENTENCES (SUBJECT/ OBJECT/ ADVERB)
I. Rewrite the sentences, using Cleft sentences.
1. My friend came to see me late last night.
2. I can’t stand the noise.
3. John didn’t do the homework.
4. I saw him in the street only last week.
5. She bought a new dress to go to the party.
6. You are wrong, not me.
7. England won the World Cup in 1966.
8. Peter lent us money.
9. The smoke from the factory chimneys pollutes the air.
10. When the play was about to end, I couldn’t help weeping.
11. The neighbour told them about it.
12. We always meet on Friday.
13. That boy scored the goal for his team.
14. We were supposed to meet at 6 o’clock.
15. They went to the cinema.
16. Spring didn’t set in until late May.
17. My brother bought his new car from our next-door neighbour last Saturday.
18. The police arrested the man at the railway station.
19. He borrowed the money from Linda.
20. They were having a barbecue in the park.
21. My brother bought his girlfriend a beautiful bunch of flowers for her birthday last Saturday.
22. The Second World War ended on 7 May 1945 in Europe.
23. If I had to choose between staying in my country or moving abroad, I would take the first option.
24. The official announcement was made at that time.
25. Corline has been feeling a bit depressed for some time.
26. The Prime Minister was traveling to France yesterday when the alarm sounded.
II. Change the sentences into cleft sentences in the passive:
1. Fred gave Mary the money.
2. Mr. Johnson sent the Jiff Company a letter.
3. I show my friends all of the photographs.
4. The boy throw his friend the baseball
5. The teacher told the students an interesting story.
6. My brother bought his new car from our next-door neighbour last Saturday.
7. Jane has just given me this camera.
8. The monkeys amused the children.
9. John took the money.
10. People were talking about this film at 9.00 last night.
11. Columbus discovered America.
12. Jose has washed his car.
13. They grow corn in India.
14. Mary bought this book yesterday.
15. Someone stole my car last week.
16. They feed these animals twice a day.
17. George was doing the homework 8.00 last night.
18. A Japanese company makes these television sets.
19. The earthquake destroyed the town.
20. No one has used this room for ages.
21. Jane did this task yesterday morning.
22. They took the sick man to the hospital last night.
23. John will sell his old house soon.
24. The police stopped us on our way to school.
25. They may use this room for the classroom.
26. You mustn’t use this machine after 5.30.
27. They haven’t stamped the letter.
28. They didn’t look after the children properly.
29. John has stored all the data on the floppy disk.
30. Tom saw Mary yesterday morning.
31. Linda loves Jack very much.
32. Tom killed a tiger last year.
33. Mr. Duy teaches English in Thong Linh High school.
34. Before the invention of electricity, people had used oil lamps.
35. We have to do these exercises tonight.
36. Tom will visit us tomorrow.
37. Tom usually brings his umbrella when he goes out.
38. My father made this chair in 1990.
39. David can sing Vietnamese songs very well.
40. People speak English here.
* MORE EXERCISES:
PRACTICE OF CLEFT SENTENCES (CÂU NHẤN MẠNH)
1. SUBJECT FOCUS (NHẤN MẠNH CHỦ NGỮ)
31. My father usually complains about my students whenever they go to my house.
32. You gave her a bunch of rose last week.
33. Our English teacher is the greatest teacher in the world.
34. My students’ bad behavior made me sad yesterday morning.
35. The man gave her the book.
36. The boy visited his uncle last month.
37. The boys played football all day long.
38. His presence at the meeting frightened the children.
39. My mother bought me a present on my birthday party.
40. The neighbor told them about it.
41. My friend came to see me late last night.
42. That boy scored the goal for his team.
2. OBJECT FOCUS (NHẤN MẠNH TÂN NGỮ)
43. The boy hit the dog in the garden.
44. I always keep your picture besides me.
45. He borrowed the money from his close friend – Hoa.
46. The police arrested the man at the railway station.
47. She sent her friend a post card.
48. Hoa borrowed some English books from Long.
49. The pedestrian asked the policeman a lot of questions.
50. The dog barked at the stranger.
51. My mom is making some cakes for our dinner.
52. We all saw her husband outside the theater last night.
53. Mr. Hao repaired the roof yesterday morning.
54. I always meet my students in the café whenever I come there.
3. ADVERBIAL FOCUS (NHẤN MẠNH TRẠNG TỪ)
55. The boy hit the dog in the garden.
56. She bought him a present at the shop.
57. She makes some cakes for tea.
58. The meeting started at 8.00 a.m.
59. We all bought those things from Susu shop.
60. Kathy bought her husband an anniversary gift at a sports shop.
61. They were having barbecue in the park.
62. The police arrested the thief at the railway station.
63. I gave him a photo album on his wedding day.
64. We planted some young trees in the garden.